Mobile 3DTV content delivery
optimization over DVB-H system

MOBILE 3DTV


MOBILE 3DTV – User-centered Quality of Experience (UC-QoE)


Goals
o To study the impact of different evaluation contexts on users’ experienced quality.
o To study the impact of audio and video coding parameters on experienced overall 3D quality.

Variables
Independent variables:
o Relatively low video and audio bitrates, video framerate, and presentation modes (3D/2D)
o Contexts of use: controlled laboratory, home-like, bus-travel, station-wait (according to user-requirements)

Equipment
Portable device with parallax barrier display technology

Stimuli
o Selection match to user requirements: Four 30sec long stimuli.
o Scenes called ‘Knight’s Quest 4D’, Liberation of Plzen, Upper Middle Rhine Valley, Virtual Visit to Suomenlinna

Participants
o Naïve

Methods
Hybrid User-Centered Quality of Experience method:
o Quantitative preference ratings
o Qualitative descriptions of quality and contexts of use,
o Audio and video recordings in the contexts of use for identifying e.g. shared attention and user’s movements in real life settings

Results available:
Satu Jumisko-Pyykkö (satu.jumisko-pyykko@tut.fi)


MOBILE 3DTV – Coding Study


Goals
o To identify the optimum coding method for mobile 3D television and video
o To study experienced quality factors to understand subjective video quality perception

Variables
Independent variables:
o 4 different coding methods (Multiview Coding, Mixed Resolution Coding, Simulcast, Video+Depth)
o 2 bitrates levels
o 2 coding structures (IPPP baseline, Hierarchical-B pictures)

Equipments
o NEC mobile3DTV prototype display

Stimuli
o Selection match to user requirements: 6 10sec long stimuli
o Scenes called Bullinger, Butterfly, Horse, Mountain, Car, Soccer2

Participants
o 87 naïve participants

Methods
o Hybrid User-Centered Quality of Experience method: 1) Quantitative preference ratings 2) Sensory Profiling Method



MOBILE 3DTV – Depth impression study


Goals
o To identify differences in audiovisual depth perception
o To study experienced quality factors to understand subjective audiovisual quality perception

Variables
Independent variables:
o Video presentation mode (monoscopic and stereoscopic presentation)
o Audio presentation mode (mono and stereo)

Equipments
NEC mobile3DTV prototype display

Stimulus
o Stimuli selection match to user requirements: 6 25sec long stimuli.
o Scenes called Bullinger, Cave, Rhine Valley, Knight's Quest 4D, Mouldpenny, Oldtimers

Participants
45 naïve participants

Methods
o Hybrid User-Centered Quality of Experience method: 1) Quantitative preference ratings 2) Sensory Profiling Method
Results available by the end of February 2010 (check the Mobile3DTV project presentation and www.mobile3dtv.eu/results)

Contact persons
Satu Jumisko-Pyykkö, Unit for Human Centered Technology, Tampere University of Technology, satu.jumisko-pyykko(at)tut.fi
Dominik Strohmeier, Ilmenau University of Technology, dominik.strohmeier(at)tu-ilmenau.de
Atanas Gotchev, Department of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, atanas.gotchev(at)tut.fi


2020 3D Media


2020 3D Media - First study with immersive material


Goal of the study: understand the relevant cognitive processes that would be important to measure the sense of presence.

Variables:
• Independent variables: We divided the performance in different moments were different type of information was presented. For example: What is the impact of tactile stimuli? What is the impact of movement – walking and looking around?
• Dependent variables: cognitive process that we suspected would be involved in sense of presence in a immersive context (in particular, attention and memory) as well as the general sense of presence

Equipment: paper and pencil

Stimuli: the immersive performance “U” created and performed by CREW.

Participants: 17 spectators.

Methods: interviews and questionnaires.

Availability of results:
Based on the data gathered we generated our first hypothesis about the role of different processes in cognitive immersion. In particular we found that the moments of multiple sensorial inputs were related with more attention and better memory of this precise moment; in addition at these moments of the performance the sense of presence was higher.



2020 3D Media -Stereoscopic studies: CANNES DECEMBER 2008


Goal of the study
• Discover which cognitive processes are involved, when they take place and what degree of influence they have on the sensation of presence, with the goal of maximizing the impact of multimedia information (almost real)

Variables
• Independent variables:
– Types of 3D effects (3 levels): Blur; Out of screen ; 3D in general
– Type of content (2 levels): Emotional vs non-emotional content; Real vs fiction.
• Dependent variables: Attention; Memory; Emotional reactions

Equipment: laptop with e-prime software and questionnaires

Stimuli:
• 11 train sequences about 20 sec. (Stereoscopic / non real / fiction)
• Fito sequence (3D stereoscopic/ non real / fiction) 3min and 30 sec.
• Emotional sequence real and stereoscopic. Non emotional sequence real and tereoscopic

Participants: 14 users, 6 women and 8 men

Methods:
• Attention: we used a cognitive task name split-attention.
• Memory: in this case we realized some post-viewing questions about the content of the stereoscopic material.
• Emotional reaction: to measure it we recorded the faces of the spectators to monitor their facial reactions

Availability of Results:
• Attention: big impact of the effect of out of screen in attention.
• Memory
• Type of effect (no significance differences but tendency to better memory in material without effects.)
• Emotional (no significance differences but tendency to better memory in emotional material)
• Type of content (no significance differences but tendency to better memory in real material )


Real 3D project - Visual perception research


A digital hologram (a digital representation of a conventional hologram) contains 3D information. However, no existing 3D display can exploit all of the information available in such holograms (no accommodation-vergence rivalry, parallax both horizontally and vertically, no eyewear required, unrestricted multiple users simultaneously viewing different and appropriate perspectives of the encoded 3D scene). Our research is in two strands: perception studies with digital holograms
(a) adapted for display using conventional display technology, and
(b) displayed on novel optoelectronic displays developed during Real 3D project.

Perception studies with digital holograms adapted for display using conventional display technology
Tests to determine perceived object depth, 3D shape, and lossy compression defects with hologram reconstructions adapted for:
• Single-view mobile devices with tilt sensor to determine the appropriate perspective to display
• Anaglyph displays
• Stereoscopic displays (lenticular array and mirror based)
• Head–tracking single-/multi-view display to determine the appropriate perspective to display

Perception studies with digital holograms displayed on novel optoelectronic displays developed in Real 3D
Novel capture and display devices are being designed that will allow visual perception tests with a 3D capture and display system that will exhibit all 3D cues simultaneously

Contact person: Thomas Naughton [thomas.naughton@oulu.fi]


3DFORYOU


Contact person: Jérôme Fournier, France Télécom - Orange
Email: jerome.fournier@orange-ftgroup.com
Expressed interest in holding email discussions


3DPresence


Aim of the project:
a multi-party, high-end 3D videoconferencing concept that will tackle the problem of transmitting the feeling of physical presence in real-time to multiple remote locations in a transparent and natural way.

Focus on human factors:
Use scenarios and requirements analysis
  • Definition of initial set of functional and non-functional requirements based on use cases
Usability tests and performance evaluation
  • Project-wide implementation of an iterative user-centred design process
  • Testing relevant variables that are expected to influence performance, including resolution, image size and orientation, spatial dimensionality (2D vs 3D), support for eye contact, screen configuration (e.g., desktop vs. boardroom), effects of viewer movement, audio characteristics (speaker placement, signal to noise ratio, directionality), system delays.
Presence engineering
  • Determining the factors that contribute to a sense of presence, and optimal collaborative task performance
  • Specifying and testing optimal conditions for eye contact and collaboration

Contact Person:
w.a.ijsselsteijn@tue.nl


Helium3D


Aim of the project:
To develop new autostereoscopic display technology based on direct-view RGB laser projection, allowing for high brightness and colour gamut, motion parallax to multiple viewers, and viewer gesture/interaction tracking

Focus on human factors:
Formative and summative evaluations that support the development the autostereoscopic display and 3D interaction technology (user-centred design process)
• assessment of perceived depth, image quality, naturalness, viewing experience, visual discomfort, interaction quality
• define a set of natural gestures to manipulate objects in far and near field interaction
• study of complementary approaches in combination with stereo – movement parallax based on head motion, and user-controled object motion

Focus on prospective end-users: medical professionals
• performance on tasks that have medical relevance (e.g., 2D vs. 3D tracking using a complex , blurred or cluttered images)

Developing representative task performance and workload measures

Contact Person:
w.a.ijsselsteijn@tue.nl


MUTED project


Aim of the project:
To develop a 3D TV display capable of supporting multiple mobile viewers simultaneously, and without the need for 3D glasses

Focus on human factors:
Formative and summative evaluations that support the development the autostereoscopic display technology (user-centred design process)
• assessment of perceived depth, image quality, naturalness, viewing experience, visual discomfort
• assessing effects of single vs. multiple viewers, variations in ambient lighting levels, variations in viewing distance, variations in image materials

Focus on prospective end-users: medical professionals
• literature review; interviews; trials – develop a standardised measurement approach, in addition to the ITU recommendations in this area
• ITU Recommendation BT.500-11 (Methodology for subjective Assessment of the Quality of television pictures)
• ITU Recommendation BT.1438 (Subjective assessment of Stereoscopic Television Pictures)

Contact Person:
w.a.ijsselsteijn@tue.nl


3D Phone


Planning of subjective tests
Tests will be conducted by Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki
User testing activities start at the beginning of 2010 and are planned to last for the whole year

Objectives Measure the eyestrain and physiological aftereffects present with the 3DPhone autostereoscopic display. The objective is to ensure that the device will be comfortable and safe to use
Conduct iterative usability testing with the planned user interface
Evaluate the display ergonomics from visual ergonomics point of view. The objective is to ensure that the visual ergonomics features (brightness, readability, viewing area) of the autostereoscopic display are in line with the planned use cases

Methodology
Ophthalmological measures in the visual screening of the users and when measuring the physiological after effects. Otherwise we will utilize subjective eyestrain measures as well as standard usability research methods. The exact experiments are currently being planned, we aim to coordinate the needs of different project partners so that we could measure more than one issue at a time. The idea is to perform the tests as efficiently as possible by giving answers to multiple questions at a time.

Contact Person:
Jukka Hakkinen, University of Helsinki (jukka.hakkinen@helsinki.fi)